Therefore, in general, indirect air economization is the recommended approach. This white paper analyzes these costs and presents a flexible architecture to accommodate a well-specified density, and discusses the importance of operational policies in enforcing the specification. WP v2 Comparing Data Center Batteries, Flywheels, and Ultracapacitors Most data center professionals choose lead-acid batteries as their preferred method of energy storage.
However, alternatives to lead-acid batteries are attracting more attention as raw material and energy costs continue to increase and as governments become more vigilant regarding environmental and waste disposal issues. This paper compares several popular classes of batteries, compares batteries to both flywheels and ultracapacitors, and briefly discusses fuel cells.
This paper defines both static and rotary UPS architectures, points out similarities and differences, and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of each in data center environments. WP v0 Continuous Metering and Monitoring of PUE in Data Centers A PUE power usage effectiveness metering scheme in a data center can be very simplistic consisting theoretically of only two meters, at one extreme, or it can be much more comprehensive and consist of dozens of metering points. This paper provides guidance on determining what level of metering is appropriate for a particular data center, given its capacity kW , power and cooling architecture, business objectives, and the degree to which infrastructure systems e.
This distributed data center architecture also provides physical infrastructure benefits that apply to any small data center regardless of the latency requirement. Other benefits are discussed including shorter project timelines.
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WP v1 Come creare ordine dal caos nei Data Center e nelle sale server I Data Center Manager possono finalmente sbarazzarsi di rack caotici, soluzioni di distribuzione dell'aria non conformi agli standard installate sotto il pavimento e cavi aggrovigliati, riducendo al minimo preoccupazioni e spese. Il presente documento illustra diversi approcci innovativi per affrontare i sintomi del caos ed eliminare le cause primarie del disordine. It generates a huge volume of data that needs to be filtered, processed and stored, and generally requires its own virtual local area network VLAN.
To gain all the promised benefits and return on investment of RFID, the network must be highly available.
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Failing to plan for DCPI can lead to disruption of critical business processes resulting in loss of revenue and competitive advantage. This paper provides an understanding of an RFID network and its components, identifies critical DCPI locations, and explains how to plan for high availability. Il riutilizzo di sottosistemi o progetti completi, collaudati e documentati, rappresenta il metodo migliore sia per la realizzazione ex novo che per l'ampliamento. I progetti di riferimento semplificano e abbreviano il processo progettuale e realizzativo e riducono il rischio di incorrere in tempi di fermo dopo la realizzazione e la messa in esercizio.
In questo documento si definisce il progetto di riferimento e se ne illustrano i vantaggi. WP v2 Data Center Projects: Establishing a Floor Plan A floor plan strongly affects the power density capability and electrical efficiency of a data center. Despite this critical role in data center design, many floor plans are established through incremental deployment without a central plan.
Once a poor floor plan has been deployed, it is often difficult or impossible to recover the resulting loss of performance. This paper provides structured floor plan guidelines for defining room layouts and for establishing IT equipment layouts within existing rooms. The ideal is for project management activities to be structured and standardized like interlocking building blocks, so all parties can communicate with a common language, avoid responsibility gaps and duplication of effort, and achieve an efficient process with a predictable outcome.
This paper presents a framework for project management roles and relationships that is understandable, comprehensive, and adaptable to any size project. WP v1 Data Center Projects: Standardized Process As the design and deployment of data center physical infrastructure moves away from art and more toward science, the benefits of a standardized and predictable process are becoming compelling. Beyond the ordering, delivery, and installation of hardware, any build or upgrade project depends critically upon a well-defined process as insurance against surprises, cost overruns, delays, and frustration.
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This paper presents an overview of a standardized, step-by-step process methodology that can be adapted and configured to suit individual requirements. L'esperienza insegna che, se le persone giuste risolvono i giusti problemi nel giusto ordine, la trasformazione di requisiti incerti in un progetto dettagliato avviene rapidamente. However, by placing critical cooling equipment on backup power, choosing equipment with shorter restart times, maintaining adequate reserve cooling capacity, and employing thermal storage, power outages can be managed in a predictable manner.
This paper discusses the primary factors that affect transient temperature rise and provides practical strategies to manage cooling during power outages. WP v1 Data Center VRLA Battery End-of-Life Recycling Procedures Contrary to popular belief, the recycling of lead-acid batteries, which are the most common batteries found in data centers, is one of the most successful recycling systems that the world has ever seen. Reputable battery manufacturers, suppliers, and recycling companies have teamed up to establish a mature and highly efficient lead-acid battery recycling process.
This paper reviews battery end-of-life options and describes how a reputable vendor can greatly facilitate the safe disposal and recycling of VRLA lead-acid batteries. The inaccurate assumptions and mistakes found in these comparisons are explained with support from third party sources.
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We consider capital expenses, energy losses, maintenance costs, footprint, and TCO using a common 2N architecture. The analysis shows the Static UPS is less expensive to purchase, install, operate, and maintain while having a slightly larger footprint. WP v0 Efficiency Analysis of Consolidated vs.
Conventional Server Power Architectures Open-source IT systems, like those designed by the Open Compute Project OCP , are redefining how power is distributed within an IT rack by replacing internal server power supplies with a centralized rack-level power supply. While many believe that consolidating power supplies leads to significant efficiency gains, we found otherwise. With best-in-class components, the consolidated 12VDC rack-level PSU architecture provides a small incremental energy efficiency improvement over the conventional architecture.
WP v2 Electrical Distribution Equipment in Data Center Environments IT professionals who are not familiar with the concepts, terminology, and equipment used in electrical distribution, can benefit from understanding the names and purposes of equipment that support the data center, as well as the rest of the building in which the data center is located.
This paper explains electrical distribution terms and equipment types and is intended to provide IT professionals with useful vocabulary and frame of reference. WP v2 Misurazione dell'efficienza elettrica del Data Center L'efficienza elettrica del Data Center viene raramente pianificata o gestita. Vengono inoltre confrontati i vantaggi derivanti dalla valutazione periodica rispetto al monitoraggio continuo. WP v2 Modelli di efficienza elettrica delle sale CED I modelli convenzionali utilizzati per la valutazione dell'efficienza elettrica delle sale CED risultano estremamente imprecisi se riferiti alle installazioni reali.
Tipicamente, le stime delle perdite elettriche vengono valutate sommando le inefficienze di vari dispositivi elettrici, come ad esempio le apparecchia-ture di alimentazione e di raffreddamento. Questo documento mostra che i valori utilizzati comune-mente per stimare l'inefficienza delle apparecchiature sono piuttosto imprecisi. As power density increased, it became evident that the degree of difficulty in cooling these higher power loads was also increasing.
In recent years, traditional cooling system design has proven inadequate to remove concentrated heat loads 20 kW per rack and higher.
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This has driven an architectural shift in data center cooling. The advent of a newer cooling architecture designed for these higher densities has brought with it increased efficiencies for the data center. This article discusses the efficiency benefits of row-based cooling compared to two other common cooling architectures. Secondo un'ipotesi comune, la richiesta di energia totale dovrebbe diminuire all'aumento delle temperature in ingresso del server. Nel presente White Paper questa ipotesi viene verificata mediante lo sviluppo di una linea di riferimento per il consumo energetico composito relativo a un insieme di server diversi in funzione della temperatura in ingresso e per differenti architetture di raffreddamento.
I dati presentati si basano su test effettivi di sistemi di raffreddamento diversi soggetti al comportamento simulato di server compositi. Il test ha rivelato una complessa interazione tra la potenza assorbita dai server e il consumo energetico totale della sala CED, che si traduce in un risparmio di energia in corrispondenza di un intervallo di temperatura ideale specifico.
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Tale valore varia in base all'apparecchiatura, alla soluzione di contenimento e ad altri fattori. But, there are four other reasons why data center owners should consider liquid cooling including low PUE targets, space constraints, harsh IT environment, and water restrictions.
This paper describes these reasons. With this information, data center owners can make an informed decision on whether liquid cooling has advantages for their application. WP v2 Grounding and the Use of the Signal Reference Grid in Data Centers Signal reference grids are automatically specified and installed in data centers despite the fact that they are no longer needed by modern IT equipment.
Even when installed, they are typically used incorrectly. This paper explains the origins of the signal reference grid, the operating principles and limitations, and why they no longer are needed. Nel presente documento viene illustrato il problema e viene descritto un metodo standardizzato per la classificazione dei carichi del datacenter per i calcoli dell'efficienza.
Currently available criticality or tier methods do not provide defensible specifications for validating data center performance. An appropriate specification for data center criticality should provide unambiguous defensible language for the design and installation of a data center. This paper analyzes and compares existing tier methods, describes how to choose a criticality level, and proposes a defensible data center criticality specification. WP v1 Harmonic Currents in the Data Center: A Case Study This document provides an overview of how problems related to harmonic neutral currents are mitigated by load diversity, with specific focus on Information Technology data center environments.
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Detailed measurements of an actual operating data center are presented. This case study illustrates the way that load diversity mitigates harmonic current levels, lowers shared neutral current in multi-wire feeders and branch circuits, and improves total circuit power factor. WP v0 How Higher Chilled Water Temperature Can Improve Data Center Cooling System Efficiency Alternative data center cooling approaches such as indirect air economization are calling into question the economic justification for using traditional chilled water cooling in new data centers, especially those in mild climates.
This paper describes some innovative approaches to chilled water cooling, where the chiller is used only to boost cooling capacity on the hottest days. We also discuss the design considerations for these new technologies. Raised floors filled with cabling and other obstructions make it difficult to supply cold air to racks. The cable blockage and air leakage problems lead to the need for increased fan power, oversized cooling units, increased pump power, and lower cooling set points. This paper highlights these issues, and quantifies the energy impact.
This paper discusses common misconceptions about row-based cooling, explains how row-based cooling removes hot air, and describes key design attributes that maximize the effectiveness of this approach. Some of these actions result in short term fixes but may come with an energy penalty and some actions may even create more hot spots.
https://ererpracburtemp.ga Airflow management is an easy and cost effective way to permanently eliminate hot spots while saving energy and can avoid the capital expense of adding more cooling units. This paper describes the root cause of hot spots, recommends methods to identify them, reviews the typical actions taken, and provides the best practices to eliminate them. WP v0 How to Prepare and Respond to Data Center Emergencies Data center operations and maintenance teams must be prepared to act swiftly and surely without warning. Unforeseen problems, failures, and dangers can lead to injury or downtime.
Good preparation and process, however, can quickly and safely mitigate the impact of emergencies and help prevent them from happening again.